Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) have been a widely used label since the early 1990’s. It is considered a catch all diagnosis by many clinicians. Frankly, ADD/ADHD is poorly understood within the health care profession. Many clinicians have difficulty with classification of different behavior disorders, which are then lumped under the diagnosis of ADD/ADHD.
ADD/ADHD are due to biochemical imbalances in the brain. In ADD/ADHD certain chemicals, otherwise known as neurotransmitters, are not being adequately produced/processed with the brain. To stimulate the brain to cause alertness, these chemicals need to be in abundant supply. (ADD is specifically caused by too little norepinephrine production, and ADHD is linked to a decreased amount of dopamine). When norepinephrine and dopamine are in short supple, the brain essentially falls asleep. Information cannot be processed electrically and inappropriate messages will get transferred to the rest of the body. Without the correct stimulation, messages are interrupted and wrong information gets processed. The message can be sent to or interpreted in the wrong location.
Clinically, patients with ADD/ADHD have difficulty focusing on one task. They can also miss messages from the environment. They appear to have a loss of memory of have poor listening skills. Poor sleeping habits are common due to the brain’s inability to shut down. Intervention strategies must address the specific areas of the brain. A specific evaluation must be done to correlate exam findings to provide strategies to maximize their full brain potential.
As a Board Certified Chiropractor, trained in Brain-Based Therapy, I take a different approach to the treatment and prevention of attention deficit disorder. After a thorough neurological examination, I determine which part of the nervous system is not functioning properly.
To stimulate brain function, pathways must have neurological activation. Left sided structural adjustments will stimulate pathways that fire to the right brain. Other effective modalities can be utilized to stimulate brain function. To stimulate the right brain, different modalities may be used. Visual stimulation (watching black and red or blue and green checkerboards) in the left vision field, auditory stimulation in one ear can be utilized at different intensities and frequencies, based on the patient need. Metronome clicks, gentle ocean, rain showers or Mozart are a few examples. Continually monitoring patient’s blood pressure, respiration rate, pulse, pupillary reflex and V/A ratio are mandatory to avoid over stimulating the brain.
To truly understand ADD/ADHD, we must address attention as a global process, not only an issue of being able to attend, focus, and sustain attention to task. Attention required both cognitive and behavioral processes. How the information is utilized by the individual’s brain is critical to correctly diagnose and then apply treatment.
The Economic Impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in Children and Adolescents
· William E. Pelham, PhD1, E. Michael Foster, PhD2 and Jessica A. Robb, BA1
· 1Department of Psychology, Center for Children and Families, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY and 2School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
· Using a cost of illness (COI) framework, this article examines the economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhoo and adolescence. Our review of published literature identified 13 studies, most conducted on existing databases by using diagnostic and medical procedure codes and focused on health care costs. Two were longitudinal studies of identified children with ADHD followed into adolescence. Costs were examined for ADHD treatment-related and other health care costs (all but 1 study addressed some aspect of health care), education (special education, 2 studies, disciplinary costs; 1 study), parental work loss (2 studies), and juvenile justice (2 studies).
Based on this small and as yet incomplete evidence base, we estimated annual COI of ADHD in children and adolescents at $14,576 per individual (2005 dollars). Given the variability of estimates across studies on which that number is based, a reasonable range is between $12,005 and $17,458 per individual. Using a prevalence rate of 5%, a conservative estimate of the annual societal COI for ADHD in childhood and adolescence is $42.5 billion, with a range between $36 billion and $52.4 billion. Estimates are preliminary because the literature is incomplete; many future researches on COI of ADHD are provided.
Study: Autism costs strain family finances
National survey shows impact of caring for a child with chronic disorder.
Just came across an article by Just, et al. from 2004 in the journal “Brain”.
Brain, Vol. 127, No. 8, 1811-1821, August 2004
© 2004 Guarantors of Brain
Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: evidence of underconnectivity
Marcel Adam Just1
, Vladimir L. Cherkassky1, Timothy A. Keller1 and Nancy J. Minshew2
1 Department of Psychology, Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Carnegie Mellon University and 2 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Correspondence to: Marcel Adam Just, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Department of Psychology, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The brain activation of a group of high-functioning autistic participants was measured using functional MRI during sentence comprehension and the results compared with those of a Verbal IQ-matched control group. The groups differed in the distribution of activation in two of the key language areas. The autism group produced reliably more activation than the control group in Wernicke’s (left laterosuperior temporal) area and reliably less activation than the control group in Broca’s (left inferior frontal gyrus) area. Furthermore, the functional connectivity, i.e. the degree of synchronization or correlation of the time series of the activation, between the various participating cortical areas was consistently lower for the autistic than the control participants. These findings suggest that the neural basis of disordered language in autism entails a lower degree of information integration and synchronization across the large-scale cortical network for language processing. The article presents a theoretical account of the findings, related to neurobiological foundations of underconnectivity in autism.